This is a conformational term used to describe the angle of the phalangeal axis. Assuming a straight phalangeal (or hoof-pastern) axis, a normal slope is an angle of 45-58° depending on whether a fore or a hindlimb is being evaluated. A sloping pastern is one which forms a shallower angle to the ground (less than 45°), this may be combined with a short or a long pastern. An upright pastern has a steeper angle (55°+ in the forelimb, 60°+ in the hindlimb) and is generally short. In cases where the phalangeal axis is not straight, the pastern angle differs from the hoof angle. An example of this is the 'club foot'.